By Plato, Gregory Vlastos
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Additional resources for Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion
David Sachs Similarly, when Glaucon, for the sake of the argument, extols injustice, he finds it apt to relate the story of Gyges' ancestor, a man who seduced his king's wife, murdered the king, and usurped the kingdom; Glaucon then alleges that no one who enjoyed the impunity of Gyges' progenitor would "persevere injustice and endure to refrain his hands from the possessions of others and not touch them ... [but would) take what he wished eveIl. from the market place and enter into houses and lie with whom he pleased, and slay and loose from bonds whomsoever he would" (36oB5-360C2).
Cf. Mill, Diss. " Cf. Idea qf Good, pp. 21 3- 1 5. , 12D-E. , 331D, with the same illustration of black and white. , 237D. Cf. Laws, 644D, 645A. Phaedo, 9gA. , 64C, with the context. 125 Cf. , 6gD, with Laws, 644C. , 63D; Phaedo, 66B. 127 Cf. , 356, 357; Gorgias, 500A, Laws, 663B, and the rhetorical repudiation ofthe whole hedonistic calculus, Phaedo, 6gA-B. , 45B- E. 129 Cf. Phaedo, 83D, withJames's Psychology, Vol. 11, p. " Plato' s Ethics the truth. The world of sense is a pale reflex of the world of ideas, 130 and the pleasures of sense are inherently unreal, illusory, and deceptive, and may in sound logic be termed false, as fairly as the erroneous opinions that accompany them.
Thus in Book IV, Socrates states that there is one form of apET"', or excellence, ofthe soul but limitless ones of KaKLa, or defect (cf. 44SCS-D1; also 449A1-S), four of which are worth special notice; they are the defects responsible for the timocratic, oligarchieal, democratic, and tyrannical polities of the soul, the famous discussion of which occupies Books VIII and IX. There, while contending that the man whose soul possesses its apET'" is happier than any man whose soul lacks it, Plato tries to determine which of the four forms of KaKLa produces the least unhappiness and which the greatest wretchedness.
Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion by Plato, Gregory Vlastos