Download e-book for kindle: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume by Unknown Author

By Unknown Author

ISBN-10: 0444820140

ISBN-13: 9780444820143

Quantity 20 completes the second one decade of volumes during this sequence and specializes in the actual elements of metal compounds. learn efforts on metal infrequent earth compounds begun in earnest approximately 50 years in the past and got an important strengthen with the invention of the RCo5 everlasting magnets approximately 12 years later. in this time a lot has been discovered in regards to the constitution in addition to undefined, magnetic and thermal houses of roughly 2500 binary infrequent earth metal compounds. in spite of the fact that, if one considers the potential actual ternary compounds and attainable pseudo-binary ternary alloys shaped through blending binary compounds, there's nonetheless a wealth of data to be bought from those still-to-be found fabrics. This quantity makes a begin during this direction.

Chapter one bargains with the Fermi surfaces of infrequent earth (Y, l. a., Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Yb) intermetallic compounds. It starts off with an advent to the proper theories required to explain the electrons close to the Fermi floor after which to the elemental experimental recommendations to review those surfaces. the most component of the bankruptcy is dedicated to a comparability of the experimental effects with the band constitution calculations for a good number of compounds. bankruptcy examines the area of skinny movies of infrequent earth metals, alloys and compounds. the 3 major themes coated are the natural metals themselves, metal alloys and compounds, and metalloid compounds. the following bankruptcy is dedicated to hydrogen in metals and their binary compounds RH2 and RH3. one of many severe difficulties is the purity of the beginning infrequent earth steel itself simply because section relatives may be enormously laid low with impurities and a focus is hence paid to the guidance of specimens and the section diagrams. Structural homes, kinetics and thermodynamic habit, in addition to digital, magnetic and thermal homes are reviewed to boot. additionally tested is the profound effect of hydrogen at the magnetic homes by means of the mediation of RKKY interplay in those fabrics. the ultimate bankruptcy is an replace at the magnetic behaviors of lanthanide intermetallic compounds, a space which has obvious many new advancements within the final 15 years. The bankruptcy is split into major elements. half one is dedicated to 3d magnetism the place either the 3d steel and lanthanide aspect give a contribution to the magnetic habit, and the second one half is worried with lanthanide magnetism itself.

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Example text

These factors must be set beside the progressive blurring of the symmetry distinction between the competing phases as the thickness is reduced below the wavelength. A more quantitative discussion of the magnetic state is provided by scaling theory, just as for the case of Gd. Their large magnetostrictions upon spin alignment indicate that the spins of Dy and Er couple more strongly than Gd to an anisotropic environment. At the same time their exchange couplings, as estimated from the ordering temperatures are, if anything, weaker than that for Gd.

Superlattices are subject to the same restrictions, provided that the interfaces are transitive. An understanding of strain effects in films is of critical importance for our subsequent discussion of superlattices in sect. 5. The topic of strain relief through interfacial accommodation began with Van der Merwe's treatment of critical thickness for the formation of interracial dislocations (Van der Merwe 1950, 1962) and has been the subject of reviews (Matthews 1979, Freund 1993). In the interest of brevity we present only a sketch of strain relief phenomena in what follows, and illustrate the substance of the discussion by relevant examples of magnetic behavior in thin rare-earth films.

13. (a) Thicknessdependenceof the Curie-WeisstemperatureTp, the extrapolatedtransitiontemperature To, the irreversibilitytemperature Ti, and the glass temperature Tg for thin Er films on Y. Data are shown on a logarithmic coverage scale, and reveal the rapid change of magnetic behavior in the 1-3ML range of coverage; (b) magnetichysteresisfor monolayerGd, Dy, and Er grownon Y and Lu. Inset:normalizedupper characteristic temperature Tp for Gd (circles) and Dy (diamonds) and Ti for Er (squares) shown as functionsof rare-earth coverage in ML.

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Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Volume Volume 20 by Unknown Author

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