By Owen P. Ward, Ajay Singh (auth.), Dr. Ajay Singh, Dr. Owen P. Ward (eds.)
The creation of an enormous array of chemical substances, in particular petroleum compounds over the last century, has prompted a major deterioration in environmental caliber. during this context, one significant hazard is posed through the consistently increasing components of infected soils and sediments.
Biotechnological equipment in line with the biodegradation of environmental pollution or phytoremediation of chronic natural contaminants and metals are being constructed. Bioremediation has now been used effectively to remediate many petroleum-contaminated websites. even if, there are as but no advertisement applied sciences prevalent to remediate the main recalcitrant contaminants, corresponding to explosives, insecticides and steel pollution. however, bioremediation is a quickly advancing box and new bio-based remedial applied sciences are carrying on with to emerge. For this quantity, a few specialists from universities, govt laboratories and undefined, have contributed chapters on leading edge tools in bioremediation and phytoremediation.
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Additional info for Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation
Considering that eompounds within a given hydroearbon dass generally exhibit similar suseeptibilities toward bio degradation (see Seet. 5 below), the overall biodegradability of a petroleum-eontaminated soil strongly depends on the type of erude oil or fuel that was spilled. For example, a soil eontaminated with Bunker C, rich in recalcitrant five- and six-ring PAHs and eomplex heteroeydie eompounds, is mueh more diffieult to bioremediate than a soil impaeted with diesel fuel eontaining primarily easily degradable low moleeular weight alkanes and PARs.
1994). This, in turn, will have negative impacts on the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading soil microorganisms. For example, Ward and Brock (1978) found that the rates of hydrocarbon metabolism decreased with increasing levels of salinity. Similarly, Rhykerd et al. (1995) reported that bacterial respiration during motor oil biodegradation decreased by 36% in soils containing 6 g NaCl/kg compared to non-salty control soils. Excessive salts can be removed from the impacted soil by water flushing or treatment with calcium (PoUard et al.
1997; Leeson and Hinchee 1997; Hupe et al. 1999). In addition, most petroleum hydrocarbons are not biodegraded to any significant degree in the absence of oxygen. The depth to which oxygen penetrates into the soil depends on the balance between the rate of oxygen diffusion from the atmosphere into the porous soil matrix and the rate of oxygen consumption by bacterial metabolism (Devinny and Islander 1989; Huesemann and Truex 1996). Consequently, the two primary mechanisms to maintain proper soil aeration are (1) to create soil conditions that maximize oxygen diffusion rates and (2) to limit the thickness of the contaminated soillayer.
Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation by Owen P. Ward, Ajay Singh (auth.), Dr. Ajay Singh, Dr. Owen P. Ward (eds.)