Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry) - download pdf or read online

By Kristi Lew

ISBN-10: 0791097838

ISBN-13: 9780791097830

Acids and bases are crucial elements of the flora and fauna that play key roles in drugs and undefined. This ebook takes an in depth examine those interesting, but contrasting, components, giving concrete, genuine global examples with various vibrant illustrations.

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Example text

Elements in the same group have the same number of valence ­electrons. electron to make it stable. This electron “swapping” results in the sodium ion having a positive charge and the hydroxide ion having a negative charge. Much like the opposite poles of a magnet, the two oppositely charged ions attract each other, forming an ionic bond. The compound formed by the bonded ions is the chemical com-­ pound sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Like sodium, potassium is in Group 1A on the periodic table and it forms ions with a +1 charge.

Therefore, to distinguish the two chemicals, the com-­ mon names soda lye (for NaOH) and potash lye (for KOH) are ­used. Not all bases contain hydroxide, however. For example, Na2CO3 is a base, but its name is sodium carbonate. Baking soda, which has a chemical formula of NaHCO3, is also a base. The scientific name for baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate (hydrogen carbon-­ ate is the name of the polyatomic ion). NH3 is also a common base. The elements that make up NH3—nitrogen and hydrogen—are both nonmetals.

The ­result ­ is ­ hydrochloric ­ acid. ­ Another ­ example, ­ hydrobromic ­ acid, ­ which ­ has ­the ­chemical ­formula ­HBr, ­gets ­its ­name ­because ­it ­is ­made ­up ­ of ­the ­elements ­hydrogen ­and ­bromine. ­Hydroiodic ­acid ­(HI) ­is ­an ­ acid ­containing ­the ­elements ­hydrogen ­and ­ ­iodine. Other ­acids ­are ­made ­up ­of ­more ­than ­two ­elements ­and ­often ­ contain ­polyatomic ions. ­Polyatomic ­ions ­are ­collections ­of ­two ­or ­  Determining Acids and Bases 27 more atoms that carry a charge and are chemically bonded to one another so that they act as a single unit.

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Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry) by Kristi Lew

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